Sunday, 24 March 2019

Esther Daniel and Yosef

Megillat Esther has a number of literary parallels with Sefer Daniel, and by extension with the story of Yosef in Egypt. Let's go over these parallels and what they might mean.

Court Tales

 

Both Daniel and Esther belong to the Near Eastern genre of Court Tales, focusing on a wise courtier and how he/she prevails over danger. In the Book of Daniel, Daniel and his companions use their wisdom to become personal advisors to the king in a rags-to-riches story. Their courtly rivals repeatedly attempt to do away with them, but they are miraculously saved each time.

Similarly, in Megilat Esther, Esther starts out a Judean orphan but finds herself marrying the king and becoming queen over the Persian empire. Haman plots to kill Mordechai and the rest of the Jews, but he and Esther overcome her rival courtier's murderous plots.

Children of Exile


The book of Daniel begins in the first generation of the Babylonian exile with our four heroes, Daniel, Hanania, Mishael, and Azaria, who have been taken from the Judean nobility as captives. They are brought into the Babylonian court to serve as advisors to King Nebuchadnezzar, yet they manage to maintain a certain separateness from their Imperial counterparts. The story features many parallel with Yosef in Egypt, the original captive-made-courtier.


In contrast, the book of Esther takes place over a century after the Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem, after the fall of the Babylonian Empire and well into Persian rule. Nevertheless, the text associates Esther to the Judean exile, though Mordechai, thus setting her up as the Daniel/Yosef character.

ה אִישׁ יְהוּדִי, הָיָה בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה; וּשְׁמוֹ מָרְדֳּכַי, בֶּן יָאִיר בֶּן-שִׁמְעִי בֶּן-קִישׁ--אִישׁ יְמִינִי.  ו אֲשֶׁר הָגְלָה, מִירוּשָׁלַיִם, עִם-הַגֹּלָה אֲשֶׁר הָגְלְתָה, עִם יְכָנְיָה מֶלֶךְ-יְהוּדָה--אֲשֶׁר הֶגְלָה, נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל.  ז וַיְהִי אֹמֵן אֶת-הֲדַסָּה, הִיא אֶסְתֵּר בַּת-דֹּדוֹ--כִּי אֵין לָהּ, אָב וָאֵם; וְהַנַּעֲרָה יְפַת-תֹּאַר, וְטוֹבַת מַרְאֶה, וּבְמוֹת אָבִיהָ וְאִמָּהּ, לְקָחָהּ מָרְדֳּכַי לוֹ לְבַת.(אסתר ב)

Note also, that the text contains other parallels, with all three emphasizing the good looks of the protagonist, as well as their dual Hebrew and local names.

The Party



In both Esther and Daniel, the king throws a wild party, has too much to drink, and makes a fateful decision.

In the fifth chapter of Daniel, Belshazzar throws a great party, has too much to drink and orders the Temple Vessels, looted during the conquest of Jerusalem, to be brought out and used in the course of the party. As a result, God punishes him and ends his reign, in favor of the Persians.

In the opening chapter of Esther, an intoxicated Ahasuerus calls for his wife to make a humiliating display before his friends, then chooses to de-throne her as punishment for her refusal to appear. This triggers Esther's rise to power. There is even an ambiguous reference to the vessels used in this party that implies a connection with Belshazzar's own folly.



ז וְהַשְׁקוֹת בִּכְלֵי זָהָב, וְכֵלִים מִכֵּלִים שׁוֹנִים; וְיֵין מַלְכוּת רָב, כְּיַד הַמֶּלֶךְ(אסתר א)


The Chief Eunuch



In the first chapter of Daniel, the lads find favor in the eyes of the Court Eunuch appointed to their care. As a result, he allows them the kosher diet they request.


Similarly, when Esther is brought into Ahasuerus' harem, she finds favor in the eyes of the Chief Eunuch, who provides her with better perfumes and food, thus establishing her role as the Daniel character.

This is all parallel to Yosef's experience with the warden in Egyptian prison:

 כא וַיְהִי יְהוָה אֶת-יוֹסֵף, וַיֵּט אֵלָיו חָסֶד; וַיִּתֵּן חִנּוֹ, בְּעֵינֵי שַׂר בֵּית-הַסֹּהַר.  כב וַיִּתֵּן שַׂר בֵּית-הַסֹּהַר, בְּיַד-יוֹסֵף, אֵת כָּל-הָאֲסִירִם, אֲשֶׁר בְּבֵית הַסֹּהַר; וְאֵת כָּל-אֲשֶׁר עֹשִׂים שָׁם, הוּא הָיָה עֹשֶׂה.  כג אֵין שַׂר בֵּית-הַסֹּהַר, רֹאֶה אֶת-כָּל-מְאוּמָה בְּיָדוֹ, בַּאֲשֶׁר יְהוָה, אִתּוֹ; וַאֲשֶׁר-הוּא עֹשֶׂה, יְהוָה מַצְלִיחַ.


Risking One's Life for the Cause


One part of the Megilla that has always perplexed me is the degree to which the Megilla emphasizes the danger Esther is putting herself in by approaching her husband, the king in chapters 4 and 5. Can he really be so inaccessible to her? Do we really expect him to order her death if she approaches him uninvited? After all, he only recently had to deal with the fallout of executing his first wife in a drunken rage- isn't he going to be careful not to repeat this folly? Isn't all the fasting and prayer in anticipation of this meeting a bit overstated?

But once we note that Megillat Esther is drawing inspiration from Daniel, it makes sense. Daniel had his Lion's Den, and Esther needs a parallel life-or-death trial.

Note also, that both works include the challenges of surmounting a strict legal system whose laws cannot be revoked or overridden.

The Fate of the Rival Courtiers



In both narratives, the rival courtiers are punished with the very same fate they had planned for our hero, together with their families.  Haman and his sons are hung from the gallows he had built for Mordechai, and Daniel's rivals and their families are thrown into the same lion's den he spent the night in.

כה וַאֲמַר מַלְכָּא, וְהַיְתִיו גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ דִּי-אֲכַלוּ קַרְצוֹהִי דִּי דָנִיֵּאל, וּלְגוֹב אַרְיָוָתָא רְמוֹ, אִנּוּן בְּנֵיהוֹן וּנְשֵׁיהוֹן; וְלָא-מְטוֹ לְאַרְעִית גֻּבָּא, עַד דִּי-שְׁלִטוּ בְהוֹן אַרְיָוָתָא, וְכָל-גַּרְמֵיהוֹן, הַדִּקוּ.(דניאל ו)

 

Textual Parallels to Yosef


There are also a number of textual parallels between Esther and Yosef

  • The King orders the gathering grain/virgins at the advise of his counselors
  • Days of embalming/Days of perfume treatment
  • Yosef's daily overtures from Potiphar's wife/Mordichai's daily refusal to bow to Haman
  • Yakov's reluctant accent to send Binyamin, Esther's reluctant accent to approach the king
  • "How could I witness my Father's downfall"/"How could I witness my people's downfall?"
  • The giving of the signet ring by the king to the heroes

The Reason Behind the Intertextuality?


Now that we have covered the extensive parallels between these works, let's try to understand the meaning behind these parallels. The story of Esther presumably takes place over a number of years. Why does the story focus on scenes that parallel those in Daniel? Why are there so many literary nods to Daniel and Yosef's stories? Why did Queen Esther make these literary choices for her Megilla?


God's Place in the Narrative


Our sages have noted the lack of any explicit mention of God in the Megilla. Does that mean it is a secular story of courtly politics?

Perhaps it was unseemly for a Persian queen to mention the God of the Hebrews in her personal annals. As such Esther contains no mention of God in the text. But what about the subtext? By encoding references to Daniel and Yosef, stories where God's role in the hero's success is explicit, the Jewish reader will get the hidden message that Esther's success was also thanks to God intervention.

Esther's Legacy


The text's equating between Esther and Daniel/Yosef is also a statement on Esther's legacy. Esther could easily have been viewed as a Shimshon-like character: as a morally flawed individual who nevertheless served God's purposes and saves the Jewish people from their enemies.

Esther was a poor girl, taken as a royal concubine. She ultimately out-concubine's all the other concubines to become the wife of a notoriously lecherous Gentile King. Is she such a sterling Jewish heroine? Do we want our daughters to emulate her and become Great Concubines as well?

By equating Esther with Daniel and Yosef, archetypes of Jewish Faith in Exile, Esther joins their ranks. Yes, exile is hard, and may entail certain compromised circumstances, but ultimately we view Esther as a legitimate Diaspora Leader who put her life on the line for her people in the service of God.

Sunday, 7 October 2018

Building a Camping Succah

As I previously mentioned, our decision to spend four night of Succot camping left us with the challenge of building a succah for our campsite. This succah needed to kosher, it needed to be transported compactly, and it needed to be easy to assemble once we reached the site.

The Frame


The Frame
The Minshayot in Sukka tell us that the minimal size of a kosher sukka is 10 tfachim high and 7 tfachim on each side. We estimate a tefach as 8cm so 80cmx56cmx56cm, which is quite compact. So how to construct our mini-sukka?

There are many guides for DIY sukkah construction using PVC pipes. The problem with this is that PVC pipes are less popular in Israel than in the US, so I found that I was very limited in terms of what I could buy.

On the other hand, the town where I live has hundreds of piles of agricultural waste and scrap wood, so I decided to see what scrap-wood I could find. After a few minutes of visiting the piles on my street I hit the jackpot: someone had thrown out a heavy wood Sukka wall with a bit of water damage. I brought it home, took it apart and soon had four posts and two interlocking beams. I salvaged some wood from my attic for another two beams and had a frame about 1 meter-cubed. I added some screws so that the beams could easily be locked together with heavy zip-ties upon reaching the campground.

The Walls

The gemara in Sukka specifies that the walls of a sukka must be strong enough to withstand a common wind. For the walls, my wife suggested using some old heavy plastic tablecloths we have lying around. I brought along a staple gun to fasten these to the wooden frame. I also brought a spade to bury the four sukka posts a couple centimeters in the ground to keep them stable so that there would be good tension in the wall fabric.

On a practical note, I'll just point out that the cheaper plastic tablecloth was stronger. The nicer, softer tablecloth had a tendency to tear where it was stapled to the posts, especially when a kid would lean against a wall. This problem wasn't terrible, but I did have to re-staple walls a couple of times, so pick your wall material carefully.

The Schach

Our Succah Fully Assembled
Due to limited room in the car, I had planned to forage for schach near our campsite, but when we stayed at my inlaws the first days of Sukkot, it turned out they had some extra palm fronds. We took these along to the campsite and it turned out to be a good decision since Ein Hemed is a very small, well-tended national park and there are not many branches lying around for the taking.

How to Schach?

A couple family members declared that to use palm fronds for schach, one must manually separate the individual leaves from one another. I had never heard of this, but I was worried that, after a few days in the sun, the individual leaves would droop into the succah, thus violating the prohibition of Dira Srucha. The Halacha states that schach whose tips hang under 10 Tfachim invalidates the succah.

היתה גבוהה מעשרה והוצין יורדין לתוך עשרה אפילו אם חמתן מרובה מצלתן פסולה(או"ח תרלג:ט)

I later asked for a clarification of this practice of separating the palm fronds and was given two possible answers:
  1. The Minhag of making sure one can see the stars through the schach(Yerushalmi, Succah 2:3)
  2. The rabbinic prohibition from using boards wider than 4 tfachim(Succah 14A)
Regarding the former, the prohibition of Dira Srucha should proceed the concern over seeing the stars. Besides that, I don't understand the claim, since at the extremities of the palm leaf there are gaps through which one can certainly see the stars.

Regarding the latter, the shulchan aruch repeates the gemara's language of "boards". Since palm leaves are not boards, nor do they look like a roof, the gzeira shouldn't apply. Here is a psak along those lines.

Camping on Shabbat Chol Hamoed Sukkot

So I'm kicking off a short series of posts that are a bit different in the sense that they deals with practical halachic matters. The reason I'm writing these post is that I didn't find a lot of information on the Internet about how to keep shabbat while camping. Add Succot into the mix and you have a considerable Halachik construction problem on your hands. As such, I'd like to contribute my own little experience to this literature.

On a bit of a whim, we decided to do things a bit differently this Sukkot. We spent the couple days in Jerusalem at my inlaws, as usual, but then, rather than heading home to our own sukkah, we decided to spend four nights camping with our four kids in Ein Hemed. This plan for camping left us with a number of practical halachic issues to contend with:
  1. Build a sukkah in our campsite
  2. Build an Eruv so that we could carry on Shabbat Chol Hamoed within our campsite
  3. Build a camp shower to wash in general and especially on Erev Shabbat
  4. Prepare shabbat meals
  5. Prayer and minyanim
In this series of posts, we'll dive into some of these issues. For now, I'll leave you with the collections of guides to halachic camping that I found online:

Wednesday, 11 July 2018

Abraham in Mesopotamia

Sefer Bereshit mentions a number of Eastern locations in Abraham's backround

  • Ur Kasdim- birthplace(Bereshit 11:28)
  • Haran- Terach settles there(Bereshit 11:31)
  • Aram Naharayim- Eliezer is sent there to find a wife for Yitzchak(Bereshit 24:10)
  • Padan Aram- Rivka, Lavan's sister, is described as being from there(Bereshit 25:20)
  • Petor- a river-side settlement. Bilam is from there(Bamidbar 22:5)

What is the relationship between these places?

Mesopotamia, the land between rivers, refers to a large area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Ur Kasdim is generally identified with the ancient city of Ur in Southern Mesopotamia(in modern Iraq), with it's port and ziggurat. The latter is similar to the Ziggurat of Babel, which likely is referred to in the tower of Babel narritive.

The scripture uses the names Haran, Aram Naharaim, and Padan Aram interchangably. These are generally identified with the ruins of the city Haran in Northern Mesopotamia(in modern day Turkey). Why so many names? Aram Naharayim literally means "Aramean Mesopotamia". Padan Aram means "Field of Aram", also presumably a name for the whole area. Haran is a particular settlement.

Finally, there is Petor. In Bamidbar(23:7) we hear it is in Aram, and in Devarim(23:5) it is called Aram Naharayim. Why does the scripture need to identify the geographic region that Petor belongs to?

Hazal approach to this question is to identify Bilam as related to Lavan. Although this isn't stated expicitly in the text, there are numerous literary and narritive parallels between Bilam and Lavan(see here). It completes the picture of the descendents of Midyan(Avraham's son), Moav(Avraham's nephew), and Lavan(Avraham's grand Nephew) plotting against the the primary Abrahamic line.

As to why Bilam's mission fails so completely, ending in his death, perhaps it relates to Lavan's promise(Bereshit 31:52)

עֵד הַגַּל הַזֶּה, וְעֵדָה הַמַּצֵּבָה: אִם-אָנִי, לֹא-אֶעֱבֹר אֵלֶיךָ אֶת-הַגַּל הַזֶּה, וְאִם-אַתָּה לֹא-תַעֲבֹר אֵלַי אֶת-הַגַּל הַזֶּה וְאֶת-הַמַּצֵּבָה הַזֹּאת, לְרָעָה. נגאֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם וֵאלֹהֵי נָחוֹר, יִשְׁפְּטוּ בֵינֵינוּ--אֱלֹהֵי, אֲבִיהֶם; וַיִּשָּׁבַע יַעֲקֹב, בְּפַחַד אָבִיו יִצְחָק. וַיִּזְבַּח יַעֲקֹב זֶבַח בָּהָר, וַיִּקְרָא לְאֶחָיו לֶאֱכָל-לָחֶם; וַיֹּאכְלוּ לֶחֶם, וַיָּלִינוּ בָּהָר.

Thursday, 10 May 2018

Daniel and his Holy Companions

The first chapter of Sefer Daniel introduces us to four Judean boys: Daniel, Hananya, Mishael, and Azarya. Through no action of their own, they are chosen from among the Judean nobility to be trained as potential members of King Nebuchadnezzar's court. By the king's decree, they are to undergo a 3 year educational program in Chaldean language. How does Sefer Daniel view the exile and indoctrination of the cream of Judean youth?

Daniel and Yosef


For starters, there are numerous parallels between Daniel in this story and the account of Yosef in Pharoah's court in Genesis. These include:
  • Both are taken as captives into a strange land
  • Both are given foreign names in place of their Hebrew name
  • Both resist sin and assimilation
  • Both are granted wisdom and the ability to interpret dreams
  • Both appear before the king and impress him with said wisdom to the exclusion of the court magicians
  • Both become members of the King's court

These persistent parallels serve to orient the reader. The Book of Daniel is not an island. The foundation is is built on is the classic story of living faithfully in exile, the story of Yosef in Egypt. The Book of Daniel will go on to explore the same themes and expand on them. This is to the benefit of it's intended audience, the many subsequent generations of Jews who live as subjects of foreign powers. So what insights does Daniel 1 add on top of the Yosef story?

The Holy and the Profane


There are some apparently irrelevant details in verse 2 when describing Yehoyakim's defeat by the Babylonians:

וַיִּתֵּן אֲדֹנָי בְּיָדוֹ אֶת-יְהוֹיָקִים מֶלֶךְ-יְהוּדָה, וּמִקְצָת כְּלֵי בֵית-הָאֱלֹהִים, וַיְבִיאֵם אֶרֶץ-שִׁנְעָר, בֵּית אֱלֹהָיו; וְאֶת-הַכֵּלִים הֵבִיא, בֵּית אוֹצַר אֱלֹהָיו
Why is the capture of vessels from the Temple mentioned here, when it plays no further part in the story? One could argue that this is simply an intertextuality with Chapter 5, setting up the story where King Belshazar uses said vessels for his idolatrous party. This may be true, but it is worth noting that there are only a handful of textual connections between the stories in the first half of Daniel. For the most part, each story stands alone.

I'd like to suggest another possible reason for the mention of the temple vessels. The reader is meant to draw a parallel between the captive vessels in verse 2 and the captive youths in verse 3. Just as the holy vessels from Beit Hamikdash are being desecrated by being brought into a house of idolatry, so to are these noble Judean youths being desecrated by being indoctrinated into Babylonian culture.

This theme of desecrating the holy is further emphasized in verse 7, when the boys are given new Babylonian names:

וַיָּשֶׂם לָהֶם שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים, שֵׁמוֹת; וַיָּשֶׂם לְדָנִיֵּאל בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר, וְלַחֲנַנְיָה שַׁדְרַךְ, וּלְמִישָׁאֵל מֵישַׁךְ, וְלַעֲזַרְיָה עֲבֵד נְגוֹ

What happens to the four companions' Hebrew names? Names that proclaim the glory of God:
  • Daniel- God Judges
  • Hananya- God is Gracious
  • Mishael- Who is like God?
  • Azarya- God Helps

The boys are instead given names of Babylonian Gods:

Just as the temple vessels are profaned with idolatry, so are the four Jewish youths profaned with idolatrous names.

Of Vessels and Vassals


Yet Nebuchadnezzar's irreverent plan immediately goes off the rails. In verse 8 Daniel makes a decision not to eat the non-kosher meat and wine provided to the King's servants:
 
וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל-לִבּוֹ, אֲשֶׁר לֹא-יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַת-בַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו; וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים, אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל

Daniel and his companions refuse to allow themselves to be profaned by their immersion in Babylonian language and culture. They are careful not to ingest impure food and they presumably hold themselves aloof from other parts of Babylonian culture. God's response to their dedication is both immediate and substantial. They are blessed and quickly become the wisest advisors in the kingdom.

וְהַיְלָדִים הָאֵלֶּה אַרְבַּעְתָּם, נָתַן לָהֶם הָאֱלֹהִים מַדָּע וְהַשְׂכֵּל בְּכָל-סֵפֶר וְחָכְמָה; וְדָנִיֵּאל הֵבִין, בְּכָל-חָזוֹן וַחֲלֹמוֹת...וְכֹל, דְּבַר חָכְמַת בִּינָה, אֲשֶׁר-בִּקֵּשׁ מֵהֶם, הַמֶּלֶךְ--וַיִּמְצָאֵם עֶשֶׂר יָדוֹת, עַל כָּל-הַחַרְטֻמִּים הָאַשָּׁפִים, אֲשֶׁר, בְּכָל-מַלְכוּתוֹ

Daniel chapter 1 carries a powerful message to Jews living in times of exile. Yes, the Babylonians succeeded in capturing and profaning holy vessels of the temple, but people are not vessels. People can ultimately choose whether to allow themselves to be profaned or to retain their sanctity. And God himself will bless those who choose the more difficult path.

The History of Daniel

So, continuing from our previous discussion of structure, let's get into the history of Sefer Daniel. The book begins with year 3 of Yehoyakim's reign and ends in year 3 of Cyrus's reign, a 7 decade period. Let's put together a rough chronology of relevant events based on Wikipedia articles and try to place chapters of Daniel within that timeline:

  • 608BCE- Yehoyakim appointed king of Judah by Pharaoh Necho
  • 605BCE- Nebuchadnezzar's father dies, becomes king
  • 605BCE- Battle of Carchemish, Nebuchadnezzar seige of Jerusalem. Yehoyakim/Judah join Babylonian Empire. First deportation of Babylonian Exile
    • Daniel 1
  • 604BCE
    • Daniel 2, 3?
  • 601BCE- Yehoyakim renews allegiance to Egyptian empire
  • 598BCE- Nebuchadnezzar seige of Jerusalem. Yehoyakim deposed, maybe killed
  • 588BCE- Destruction of 1st Temple
  • 562BCE- Nebuchadnezzar dies
  • 562 to 560BCE- Amel Marduk king of Babylon
  • 560 to 556BCE- Neriglissar king of Babylon
  • 559BCE- Cyrus the Great becomes king of Persia under Medes
  • 556BCE- Labashi-Marduk king of Babylon
  • 556–539BCE- Nabonidus king of Babylon
    • Daniel 4
  • 553-550?BCE- Cyrus conquers Medes
  • 553-543BCE- Belshazzar rules as regent while Nabonidus is in Teima
    • Daniel 5, 7, 8
  • 539BCE- Cyrus the Great conquers Babylon. Commands building of 2nd temple
    • Daniel 6, 9?
  • 537BCE
    • Daniel 10-12
  • 530BCE- Cyrus dies in Battle

 

Historical Problems in Daniel


What problems arise when we try to map the happenings in Daniel to this chronology?
  1. Ch. 1- The books of Daniel, Melachim, Divrei Hayamim, Yirmiaya, Josephus all give differing accounts of Yehoyakim's defeat and death(a good summary can be found in “Jehoiakim Slept with his Fathers…” (II Kings 24:6) – Did He?, Oded Lipschits)
  2. No minister by the name of Daniel is recorded in any other Babylonian/Persian source. On the other hand, Daniel is mentioned in Ezekiel(during the Babylonian exile), and Ezra(100 years later).
  3. Ch. 4- No prolonged absence of Nebhuchadnezzar from the throne is known to history. On the other hand, Nabonidus' absence is well established, including the Prayer of Nabonidus scroll from Qumran)
  4. Ch. 5, 7,8- Belshazzar never seems to have been King, rather he was Crown Prince and Regent
  5. Ch. 6, 9- The King, Darius the Mede, a contemporary of Cyrus who began his reign at 62 years old, is unknown to history. Darius the Great only came to rule the Persian empire in 522BCE at the age of 28, but perhaps the text is referring to some other milestone that happened later in his kingship. Even so, assuming that Daniel was about 10 years old in 598BCE, he would have been 110 years old by the time Cyrus the Great was 62, which seems farfetched
  6. Ch. 9- the 70 year calculation for the rebuilding of Jerusalem is not so straightforward. Different commentators attempt to explain the calculation. Many even gave up and concluded that Daniel miscalculated ("כל הגאונים פה אחת הסכימה דעתם עם דעת הקדמונים שאמרו שטעה דניאל בחשבונו" אבן עזרא על דניאל ט:ב)

Nabonidus Cylinder
The commentators take various approaches in their attempts to resolve these issues, but the overall picture that emerges is that Historical precision is less of a concern in Daniel than, say, in Divrei Hayamim. For this reason, historians find Daniel to be a less useful text for the period than, say, official chronicles of the Babylonian and Persian Empires.

Composition


These Historical issues with the book of Daniel raise the question whether the stories therein are historically factual. Did a Jew named Daniel really rise to prominence in the Babylonian and Persian courts? Did all these miracles and visions actually happen to him?

This sort of question is not foreign to traditional commentary. For instance, one Amora opined that the Book of Job is ahistorical:
יתיב ההוא מרבנן קמיה דר' שמואל בר נחמני ויתיב וקאמר איוב לא היה ולא נברא אלא משל היה(בבא בתרא טו.)
My own gut feeling about Daniel, given it's historical problems and it's structural idiosyncrasies, is that the character Daniel existed(as mentioned in Ezekiel) but that the Book of Daniel was composed after Daniel's lifetime. I assume that the writer of Daniel collected different stories and visions of Daniel, both written and oral, and wrote them into a single scroll. This writer likely belonged to the sages of the Great Assembly which would place him somewhere in the period between 530 and 150BCE, which is, admittedly, quite a long time interval.

Antiochus IV Epiphanes
The current scholarly consensus seems to be towards the end of that period, due to:
  1. The symbolic reference to Antiochus Epiphanes in Daniel 7
  2. Daniel's absence from the Canonization of Prophets and from Ben Sira
  3. It's presence in the Sibylline Oracles and Qumran Caves

The Value of Daniel


So, assuming the Book of Daniel was compiled up to 400 years after the period it portrays and it's historical accuracy is a bit sketchy, what are it's merits? More specifically, why did the Men of the Great Assembly choose to include this scroll in the biblical canon?

Daniel and his companions requesting kosher meals
Daniel contains some of the most iconic scenes in the bible, such as Daniel in the Lion's Den and the Fiery Furnace(which apparently served as inspiration for the famous midrash about Abraham). It's themes of Jews maintaining their faith while living in Gentile regimes have been relevant throughout our people's long history. Daniel and his companions were taken as slaves to Babylonia, but stayed true to God's covenant, and thrived thanks to God's blessing. Their host nations, on the other hand, rise, are judged for their sins, and ultimately fall. Daniel is the story of our covenant with God even in times of exile and subjugation.

    Monday, 7 May 2018

    Structure of Sefer Daniel

    Recently I began a project to learn sefer Daniel with the 929 site. Daniel is a book that always held a certain appeal for me, perhaps because of the memorable stories, perhaps because of the strange allure of Aramaic language and Babylonian culture. As such, for the past few weeks I've been working my way through the book, so this will hopefully be the first of a few posts on the topic. Note: I'm dedicating this series to my father, Zwi ben Yakov. May Hashem grant him a speedy and successful resolution to his current medical issues.

    High Level Structure


    Let's begin with the high-level structure of Daniel. The book has 12 chapters, which I have summarized as follows:


    Ch. Topic Narrator Hero Lang Time Period{King/Year}
    1 Children in Court 3rd Person Daniel+3 Heb Yhykm/3->Neb.->Koresh/1
    2 Dream of the Statue 3rd Person Daniel Arm, Heb Nebuchadnezzar/2
    3 The Fiery Funace 3rd Person 3 Arm Nebuchadnezzar/?
    4 Dream of the Great Tree Nebuchadnanezzar Daniel Arm Nebuchadnezzar/?
    5 The Writing on the Wall 3rd Person Daniel Arm Belshazar/?
    6 The Lion's Den 3rd Person Daniel Arm Darius the Mede/1->Cyrus
    7 Dream of 4 Beasts 3rd Person Daniel Arm Belshazar/1
    8 Dream of Ram + Goat Daniel Daniel Heb Belshazar/3
    9 Prayer for Jerusalem Daniel Daniel Heb Darius the Mede/1
    10 Vision of Angels P1 3rd Person Daniel Heb Cyrus/3
    11 Vision of Angels P2 3rd Person Daniel Heb Cyrus/3
    12 Vision of Angels P3 3rd Person Daniel Heb Cyrus/3

    As you can see, Daniel is a rather Eclectic work of literature. It's chapters comprise different languages, different timelines, different narrators, even different heroes. Is this a literary choice, reflecting the virtual Ziggurat of Babylonian culture the exiled Judeans found themselves thrown into? Does it reflect a history of editing and revision, as new stories were added to an existing text? Or is simply a collection of Daniel's writings, written at different periods over the course of a long life?

    What is generally agreed upon is that the Book of Daniel is divided into two distinct parts:

    Daniel Part 1


    The first 6 chapters take the form of Court Tales, which Oxford Reference defines as:
    A popular genre of the Persian and Hellenistic periods...that emphasize the wisdom of the courtier, often in settings of danger
    They seem to be in chronological order, at least in that they begin with King Nebuchadnezzar, move to Belshazer, and end with Darius. The stories are written mostly in Aramaic, with a third-person narrator, and Daniel as the protagonist. The exceptions are:

    • Chapter 1 and the beginning of ch. 2 are in Hebrew
    • Chapter 1 features all four companions, and Chapter 3 features the 3 others(Daniel is conspicuously missing)
    • Chapter 4 is written from the perspective of Nebuchadnezzar, who relates his dream and Daniel's interpretation
    One final point is that these stories seem form a cohesive unit, with intertextualities between them, such as:
    1. The 3 companions seem to be mentioned in Chapter 1 only because they are the heroes of Chapter 3
    2. In Chapter 5 the Queen recommends the King to Daniel, apparently based on his success in chapters 2, 4
    3. The Golden statue in Chapter 3 is implicitly Nebuchadnezzar's response to the interpretation of the dream in Chapter 2
    4. Chapters 1-4 all involve King Nebuchadnezzar and create a continued dialogue between him and God
    5. The chapters seem to come in similar pairs: 4 and 5 are visions of the downfall of haughty kings, while 3 and 6 are courtly intrigues to bring down Daniel and his companions based on their religious devotion

    Daniel Part 2



    The last 6 chapters are a collection of four dreams/visions Daniel has seen. They are a less cohesive unit than the first part of the book:
    • The first vision is in Aramaic, the other 3 are in Hebrew
    • The first and forth visions are written in first-person, while the second and third are in 3rd person
    • Besides that, the different visions don't seem to reference or build-on one another
    The general theme of these visions is the rise and fall of Babylonian, Persions, Greek, and Roman empires according to God's decrees, as well as the rebuilding of Temple in Jerusalem and return of the Judean exiles.

    Chapter 7


    Rabbi Yonatan Grossman argues that Chapter 7 actually belongs to the first part of the book. One reason he gives for this is that it is written in Aramaic, just like chapters 2-6. The other reason it that chapters 2-7 thereby form a chiastic structure.

    • Ch1: Children in Court
      • Ch2: Dream of 4-Part Statue(represents 4 Empires)
        • Ch3: Fiery Furnace(Daniel's companions are tested)
          • Ch4: Dream of the Great Tree(downfall of haughty king)
          • Ch5: The Writing on the Wall(downfall of haughty king)
        • Ch6: Lion's Den(Daniel is tested)
      • Ch7: Dream of 4 Beasts(represents 4 Empires)

    What emerges is a series of stories about lone Israelite exiles surviving among the Babylonian/Persian court. Rather than being subsumed by or trampled under the dominant culture, they hold to their faith and even thrive, dwelling among the halls of power, while their host Empires rise and fall by God's decree.