Wednesday, 7 May 2014

Rosh Chodesh vs. Chol Hamoed: Tefilah & Bircat Hamazon

Last time we discussed the chakira of Full Kedushat Hayom vs. Limited Kedushat Hayom.  Let’s look how this distinction is realized with regard to mentioning the day in tefilah & bircat hamazon.

In general, the Rav points out three distinct requirements to mention the day in tefilah, the first two being generally accepted, the third being the chiddush:

  1. Mention the Kedusha of the Day- tefilah is incomplete if forgotten 
  2. Mention the Unique Nature of the Day- if forgotten, don’t need to repeat Shmoneh Esrei
  3. Israel’s acceptance of the day as Rosh Chodesh is what estabelishes it as such(based on השגות הרמב"ן על ספר המצוות מ"ע קנ"ג ורמב"ם קידוש החודש ה:א). Therefore, on Rosh Chodesh specifically, Chazal require that we all mention the day in our tefilah in order to demonstrate this acceptance.

בענין הזכרה בתפלה נאמרו שתי הלכות: א) הזכרת קדושת היום בכל מועד מקודש כמו שבת ויו"ט ב) הזכרת מעין המאורע אע"פ שלעצמו של יום אין קדושה מיוחדת, וכגון תענית... וכן חנוכה ופורים או תשעה באב(הזכרת ר"ח וחוה"מ:ה)

ובכן נראה, כי ההזכרה בתפילה בר"ח, פרט לדין הזכרה מעין המאורע שבה, שבגינה אין חוזרים, נובעת ממקור אחר- והוא, ענין קביעות ראש חודש שנוהג אפילו בזמן הזה(הזכרת ר"ח וחוה"מ:ו)

Nafka Minot

The Rav takes this model and uses it to explain various difficult halachot in the literature:

1. Forgot yaaleh veyavo in shmoneh esrei at night 


  • Chag- shmoneh esreh is lacking mention of kedushat hayom. Repeat it.
  • Rosh Chodesh- only has din of מעין המאורע, since establishing the month doesn’t apply at night time. Don’t repeat.   

2. Forgot yaaleh veyavo of rosh chodesh during day

The gemara(ברכות ל ב) suggests that you don’t repeat shmoneh esrei because you can say yaaleh veyavo in your next tefilah. Requirement of keviut apparently only applies once per day, leaving only the requirement of מעין המאורע, which doesn't require going back and repeating the tefilah.

 3. Gemara שבת כד א  


The gemara debates whether we need to say rosh chodesh yaaleh veyavo in benching. Why does it consider the possibility that we don't say it? Because perhaps the takana of saying yaaleh veyavo for kviut only applies to tefila, not birkat hamazon(הזכרת ר"ח וחוה"מ:ג)

4. Gemara ברכות מט א  

The gemara is of the opinion that we don’t say the chatima of the compensatory beracha after benching on Rosh Chodesh. Why? Because the chatima mentions kedushat hayom which is not relevant on Rosh Chodesh except during Mussaf.

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